The following ingredients have clinical research associated with them:
Hinckley KA, Fearn S, Howard BR, Henderson IW. Nitric oxide donors as a treatment for grass induced acute laminitis in ponies. Equine Vet J. 1996 Jan;28(1):17-28.
Bryk J, Ochoa JB, Correia MI, et al. Effect of citrulline and glutamine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells in an arginine-depleted environment. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2008 Jul-Aug;32(4):377-83.
Hayashi T, Juliet PA, Matsui-Hirai H, et al. l-Citrulline and l-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesteral-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 20;102(38):13681-6.
Gee E, Davies M, Firth E, et al. Osteochondrosis and copper: histology of articular cartilage from foals out of coppersupplemented and non-supplemented dams. Vet J. Jan;173(1):109-17.
O'Neill W, McKee S, Clarke AF. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) supplementation associated with reduced skin test lesional area in horses with Culicoides hypersensitivity. Can J Vet Res. Oct 2002;66(4):272-7.
Zhong Z, Wheeler MD, Li X, et al. L-glycine: a novel antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent. Curr Opin Clin Nutri Metab Care. 2003 Mar;6(2):229-40.
Brommer H, Slet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan MM. Iron deficiency in stabled Dutch warmblood foals. J Vet Intern med. 2001 Sep-Oct;15(5):482-5.
Mullaney TP, Brown CM. Iron toxicity in neonatal foals. Equine Vet J. 1988 Mar;20(2):119-24.
Inoue Y, Matsui A, Asai Y, et al. Effect of exercise on iron metabolism in horses. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Oct;107(1):33-42.
Graham-Thiers PM, Kronfeld, DS. Amino acid supplemention improves muscle mass in aged and young horses. J Anim Sci. 2005 Dec;83(12):2783-8.
Graham PM, Ott EA, Brendemuhl JH, TenBroeck SH. The effect of supplemental lysine and threonine on growth and development of yearling horses. J Anim Sci. 1994 Feb;72(2):380-6.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Manhart DR, Scott BD, Gibbs PG, et al. Markers of inflammation in arthritic horses fed omega-3 fatty acids. Prof AnimSci. 2009;25:155-60.
Artemis P. Simopoulos, MD. Omega-3 fatty acids in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. 2002 Dec;21(6):495-505.
Neelley KA and Herthel DJ. Essential fatty acid supplementation as a preventative for carbohydrate overload-induced laminitis, in Proceedings. 43rd Annu Conv Am Assoc Equine Pract 1997;43:367-9.
Noble GK, Brockwell YM, Munn KJ, et al. Effects of a commercial dose of l-tryptophan on plasma tryptophan concentrations and behaviour in horses. Equine Vet J. 2008 Jan;40(1):51-6.
Comprehensive prohibited substance screen performed by LGC Science, Inc., an FEI recognized laboratory, and the laboratory that performed the FEI drug testing for the 2016 Rio Olympics. For more information visit the following sites:
Up to 90% of Performance Horses Have Ulcers
A horse’s stomach is divided into two parts. The lower region, which contains a mucus coating for protection from the gastric acid secreted, and the upper region, which lacks the thick mucosa prevalent below. Ulcers can occur in either part of the stomach, but occur most frequently in the upper portion because it lacks the protection found in the lower stomach.
Horses produce gastric acid 24 hours a day whether they are eating, sleeping or exercising. Without constant foraging, this acid irritates their stomach and intestinal lining.
• L-glutamine and L-proline, which stimulate production of the mucosa that protects the gastrointestinal tract from acid, support development of the intestinal cells responsible for nutrient absorption, and assist in rebuilding damaged tissue.
• Omega-3 fatty acids known to reduce swelling and inflammation, and boost the immune system.
• Hydrophilic ingredients that assist in clearing sand and unwanted debris from the gut.
• Naturally occuring magnesium, tryptophan and glutamate, which assist anti-stress inhibitors that reduce anxiety and nervousness.
• L-arginine, which is the precursor to nitric oxide that increases blood flow to damaged tissue, helps reduce inflammation, promotes the healing process of ulcers, and helps prevent additional ulcers from developing.
• L-lycine, which aids in healing gastric lesions.
• L-glycine, which is essential for a healthy functioning digestive system, and is known to inhibit gastric secretion and protect and repair gastric mucosa.
• L-serine, which inhibits gastric secretion and protects gastric mucosa. Serine is also needed to produce tryptophan, the amino acid precursor to serotonin, which helps reduce nervousness and stress.